Acne (Acne Vulgaris) is a common skin disease predominantly found on the face, upper back, and chest. Up to 90% of people aged 12-25 will experience acne and on average it continues to persist for 8-10 years. Scarring occurs in up to 10% of patients.

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. It causes whiteheads, blackheads or pimples, and possible scarring. There are several ways of classifying acne. In broad terms, acne can be defined as being inflammatory or non-inflammatory, but mainly most patients have a combination of both.


There 4 key elements that cause acne. To successfully manage acne, it is important to determine which elements are most prevalent, and to then treat accordingly:

    1. Bacteria
    2. Follicle obstruction
    3. Excessive sebum production – seborrhoea
    4. Inflammation


Acne can have an emotional long-lasting effect on patients and can lead to low self-esteem and in some cases depression. Acne can present as the following:

    • Whiteheads
    • Blackheads
    • Pimples
    • Nodules, cysts, or both (deep and painful)
    • Scarring
    • Hyperpigmentation

Types of Acne

  • Mild to Moderate Acne-Mild to moderate inflammatory acne can present as one or a combination of papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.
  • Acne With comedones-Mild to moderate non-inflammatory acne often presents with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads).

Treatment and prevention

Maintaining a consistent skincare routine for acne prone skin is crucial.

Most treatments involve topical medications-creams, lotions or gels, which work very well in most cases if used correctly. If, however they are not successful, then your doctor may recommend oral medications, such as antibiotics.

It is also important to keep acne prone skin hydrated. Use a moisturiser that will both help rebalance your sebum production and keep your skin hydrated. It is also advised to use a moisturiser with an SPF to protect the skin as UVA and UVB rays can trigger acne.

Finally, it is important to note that treatments tend to take some time to show positive results. Therefore, Dermatologists recommend using products for up to 12 weeks to see real improvements.